The tin whistle, also known as the penny whistle or Irish whistle is an instrument with a plastic or wooden mouthpiece and a metal body tube. They are relatively simple to play so, if you are looking for a new musical instrument to play then you will really enjoy an Irish whistle!
We recommend beginning with a Brass D Feadóg Original Irish Whistle as it is packaged in a stylish presentation pack with a fingering chart and an International instruction sheet with several songs to get you started.
- Purchase a tin whistle from Feadóg Original Irish Whistles. Whistles are available in all the major keys. The most common, a D whistle, can play in the keys of D and G major. The second most common, a C whistle, can play in the keys of C and F major. The lowest note of a penny whistle, with all the fingers covered, is called the tonic – on a D whistle the tonic is D.
Whistles are pitched in different keys and octaves.
Low whistles, or concert whistles, are longer and wider and produce tones an octave (or in rare cases two octaves) lower. Whistles in this category are likely to be made of metal or plastic tubing, with a tuning-slide head. The term soprano whistle is sometimes used for the higher-pitched whistles when it is necessary to distinguish them from low whistles.
- Hold the whistle correctly. The whistle should face downwards and away from you at a 45 degree angle. Place your dominant hand at the bottom and your other hand at the top of the tube. Do not use your pinky finger unless you are supporting the whistle while playing certain notes or when playing the largest (and lowest) tin whistles. Use your thumb to hold up the whistle from below. Cover the six keyholes with your fingertips. Place the tip of the mouthpiece (fipple) between your lips (but not between your teeth)!
- Learn how to finger the notes. The standard range of the whistle is two octaves. For a D whistle, this includes notes from the second D above middle C to the fourth D above middle C. (It is possible to make sounds above this range by blowing with sufficient force but in most musical contexts, the result will be loud and out of tune.) As you go up a note on a whistle, you generally lift one finger. Read the tablature for a D whistle below. White holes specify the hole is uncovered, black indicate the hole is covered and “+” below the fingerings specify the higher octave.
- Play the lower octave notes. Hold the whistle with all the finger holes covered. (You don’t need to press hard, just make sure each hole is completely covered). Blow a steady stream of air with your mouth shaped as if you were saying “too”. This will produce the tonic (a D on the D whistle). Blowing too softly will make the note airy or non-existent. Blowing too hard will produce the upper octave or a squeak. Blowing just right will create a steady, low tonic pitch. Progressively remove a finger at a time, starting by uncovering the hole at the end and working your way up to your mouth until you’re playing the note with no holes covered (C#). You may have to use the pinky of your dominant hand to help support the whistle when none of the holes are covered.
- Play the upper octave notes. Cover all of the holes again and blow harder than before to get a higher pitch. If you’re having trouble hitting the note, slightly uncover the top hole of the whistle (the hole closest to your mouth) and try again. Doing this should help with all of the notes in the higher octave. Like you previously did, uncover the holes one at a time until you get to the highest note (C#). As the notes get higher, you’ll have to blow harder to reach it. Be careful however, if you blow too hard, the whistle will squeak!
- Play music! A player will usually play a whistle only in its tonic key and sometimes in the key beginning on the fourth (e.g. G on a D whistle), but nearly any key is possible, becoming progressively more difficult to keep in tune as the player moves away from the whistle’s tonic, according to the circle of fifths. Thus, a D whistle is fairly apt for playing both G and A and a C instrument can be used fairly easily for F and G.
To play a C natural on a D whistle or a B flat on a C whistle you can either half cover the top hole of the whistle or cover the two holes below the top hole. (The latter is more practical for faster playing).
Practise a few simple tunes below:
- Practice! Not only should you be looking for clean, steady notes and smooth transitions between them but you can also practice ornamentation:
- Cuts – Just before you play a note, play a higher note for an instant. Snap one of your fingers off a hole momentarily to hit the next higher note. It should be so short that the listener can’t determine the pitch.
- Strikes – This is like a cut, except you go one note lower instead of higher.
- Sliding up a note – Slide your finger slowly off a hole so that you ease into the next note. It should only take about half a second.
- Vibrato can be achieved by varying the air speed slightly. Faster air means a higher tone, and slower air means a lower one, so by pulsing the air using your diaphragm, one can achieve vibrato. Don’t blow too hard, or the instrument will play the next partial. Vibrato can also be achieved by opening and closing the second open hole counting down from the mouthpiece. For example, on the note A, play a normal A and wiggle your finger over the hole at the first finger of your dominant hand.